cappella: literally, "to the chapel," a cappella means
performed without instrumental accompaniment.
recitative: a recitative in which the orchestra (or selected
members of the instrumental ensemble) play an active role, rather
than simply sustaining chords to provide a harmonic foundation for
the singer. Accompanied recitatives are fairly common in the Viennese
Classical Era (Mozart), but a few examples do appear in Bach's cantatas.
a dance in moderate tempo, always in duple meter. Bach frequently
uses the allemande in his keyboard suites; in this situation, they
are usually composed in 4/4 time and make heavy use of running figures.
refers to singing in alternating choruses: chorus 1, chorus 2, chorus
1, chorus 2, etc.
a non-chord tone, in which a line moves by leap to a pitch which
is dissonant, then resolves by step (usually
downward) to a chord tone, which is consonant. Here is an example
of an appoggiatura:
usually, a solo vocal work, often elaborate and with instrumental
accompaniment. An important component of opera, oratorio, and cantata.
Another type of aria in the Baroque was a choral or vocal work,
strophic in nature, homophonic in texture, composed on a metrical
text (regular accent pattern, same number of syllables per line).
The "aria'' from "Komm, Jesu, komm'' is one such aria,
scored for chorus.
[are-ee-OH-so]: a texture which is partly lyrical and expressive
and partly recitative or speech-like
a hand-written score or part written by the composer himself
bass [base]: the lowest-sounding
male voice; or, the lowest register in an instrumental work. Bassoons
and cellos are two instruments which usually play in the bass range.
continuo: perhaps the most important characteristic
of Baroque music. Often shortened to continuo, the basso continuo
was composed of a bass-register instrument that could play melodic
lines (such as the bassoon or cello), and an instrument capable
of playing chords (the organ in church music, the harpsichord or
sometimes the lute in secular music). Both the melodic bass (pronounced
like "base") instrument and the keyboard instrument would read the
same part. The cello or bassoon would play a single bass line, but
the keyboard player would play the bass line in the left hand and
improvise chords in the right. A system of numbers would indicate
to the keyboard player what chords were expected.
a regular metrical subdivision of a measure.
Singakademie: founded in 1791 by Carl Fasch, this musical
organization was dedicated to the preservation and performance of
18th-century sacred choral music, especially that of Bach; the orchestra
regularly rehearsed instrumental music of that period as well. Felix
and Fanny Mendelssohn were introduced by Bach's works by attending
rehearsals of the Singakademie orchestra and later by singing with
in the choir.
form: a two-part form, in which the first half moves
from the tonic key to the dominant (in a major key) or to the relative
minor (in the minor mode); and the second half returns at some point
to the tonic to close the work. Both halves are repeated, and marked
with repeat signs. The two halves need not be balanced, and generally
the second "half" is longer because of the wandering back
to the tonic. Binary forms, especially "simple
binary forms," were common in Bach's suites.
an abbreviation for Bach Werke Verzeichniss, which is a catalogue
of Bach's works. The catalogue is organized by genre, not in the
order the pieces were composed.
a point of repose or rest in a work of
music, occurring at the end of a piece, a movement, a section, or
the end of a phrase. There are several types of cadences: perfect
authentic (the strongest affirmation of a key), imperfect authentic,
deceptive, plagal (sometimes called "Amen" cadence), and half
literally, cadence; in common usage, however, the term means an
improvised or written-out solo passage, usually highly ornamental.
Almost always occurs during an interrupted cadence; that is, on
the second or third chord prior to a cadence.
the strictest form of imitation; an extended melody is imitated
strictly in one or more other parts. Usually the imitation occurs
at a relatively close distance(such as a measure apart, as in the
Brahms motet discussed above, between the tenors and bass II (also
sopranos and alto II); though in the Brahms motet discussed above,
there is also a canon between the men's and women's parts, nine
measures apart. The imitation must include the same intervals (major
thirds must remain, for example, and not be changed to minor thirds,
as is common in a fugue), but the actual pitches may vary. That
is to say, the original melody might begin on B, but the imitation
begins on C; moving from one pitch to the next, however, all original
intervals are precisely maintained.
[kahn-TAH-tah]: comes from the Italian word "cantare,"
meaning "to sing." This indicates that cantatas always used voices.
In Bach's day, these were multi-movement works, accompanied by an
orchestra. Almost all of Bach's cantatas use a choir. Many were
written for specific feast days in the Lutheran Church calendar.
[kore-AL]: the main Lutheran contribution to church music;
these were simple pieces sung in German, intended for the congregation
(not a professional choir) to sing. As a result, the melody is simple,
step-wise, limited in range, and uses simple rhythms. Chorales were
often accompanied by the organ, or sung in parts (soprano, alto,
tenor, bass), but always with a clear, simple melody in the soprano.
cantata: a cantata which uses chorale melodies in some
of the movements. The Christmas Oratorio actually is composed of
six chorale cantatas.
a movement which uses a chorale tune in one
part, often in long, easy-to-follow notes, while the other parts
of the choir and/or orchestra sing and play more complicated, active
parts around the tune. One example of this type of piece is the
first movement of Bach's Cantata No. 140.
grosso: literally, large concerto, the concerto grosso
features a group of soloists (called the "concertino")
rather than a single soloist. The rest of the orchestra (called
"tutti" or "ripieno") accompanies and plays
in between phrases featuring the soloists. Bach's Brandenburg
Concertos No. 1, 2, and 4 are concerti grossi.
mostly stepwise motion
short for basso continuo
A series of 2-3 suspensions. Named after the composer Archangelo
Corelli, in whose music such strings of suspensions are found. Corelli
was not the only composer who used these passages; in fact, they
are common in Italian Baroque music around 1700 and shortly thereafter,
including works by Corelli and Vivaldi, and Bach, who was influenced
by the Italian instrumental composers.
da caccia [KORN-oh dah KAH-cha]: hunting horn.
a secondary tune, almost equal in importance to the main melody
sung or played elsewhere, and occurring simultaneously.
a secondary theme in a fugue, which occurs simultaneous with
statements of the subject, though in a different voice, in a fugue.
A countersubject cannot appear during the first statement of the
subject, which occurs in a single part without any accompaniment.
a French courtly dance; usually in 3/2 meter, and often (though
not necessarily) with a pick up. The beat tends to move slowly,
though the subdivisions can be flowing and quick.
musician: a person employed in the court (home) of
a local political leader or member of the aristocracy; their homes
were called "courts"
capo aria: a 3-part aria, in ABA form. The first A section is
contained within the tonic key, and ends with a clear cadence. The
B section is contrasting in character and sometimes also in key.
A complete repeat of A follows. It was common practice for the vocal
soloist to improvise ornamentation on the repetition of A. Common
from the second half of the 17th century through about 1770, especially
in the works of Alessandro Scarlatti, Handel, Porpora, Vinci, and,
segno aria: similar to a da capo aria, except that instead of
returning to the opening, the music begins at a point in the music
designated by the sign at right.
in a key, using notes belonging mostly to a single key dynamics:
in music, volume (how loud or soft)
mostly leaping/skipping motion
a combination of pitches which is not consonant or displeasing.
of Affections: An important theory governing musical composition
during the Baroque which stated that music had an emotional effect
on people, and that a single movement or piece of music should attempt
to reflect or create in the listener's mind one and only one emotion.
Although there was general agreement amongst theorists and musicians
throughout Europe on the principle behind the Doctrine of Affections,
there was a great deal of variety in its application and in the
details. Some theorists went so far as to identify the associations
between individual intervals and specific emotions; other focused
on keys and modes.
mode: Uses the pitches D, E, F, G, A, B, C, D (or, the same
intervals, transposed: whole step, half step, whole step, whole,
whole, half, whole). Has a minor key sound, though lacks the raised
leading tone (raised seventh scale degree) to place the sound into
minor. Perhaps the most commonly used mode in the era prior to the
development of the major/minor tonal system.
Matthew, Mark, Luke, or John; the authors of the gospels
the opening section of a fugue, in which each voice part or instrumental
part states the fugue subject once. After all voices have stated
the subject one time, the exposition is over.
a hold or pause. Sometimes called a "bird's eye" or a "hold," a
fermata looks like a half circle with a dot in the middle.
bass: a bass part provided with numbers (figures) which indicate
harmonies. Figured bass lines always appear in a part marked "continuo"
or "basso continuo." The melodic bass instrument (bassoon,
cello) play the pitches indicated by the composer, while the harmonic
instrument (lute, organ, harpsichord) play the pitches indicated
plus the chord structures indicated by the numbers. No numbers indicate
a root position triad. A 7 alone indicates a root position seventh
chord. 6 indicates a first inversion triad, while 6 and 5 together
(one on top of the other) indicates a first inversion seventh chord.
There are many other such combinations to indicate both chords,
accidentals, and non-chord tones in the harmonic structure.
overture: a two-part piece, the opening movement of
a larger work such as an oratorio, suite, or opera. Called "French"
because it developed primarily in the late-17th century
works of Jean-Baptiste Lully and his successors. The opening movement
is majestic, slow in tempo, and marked by dotted rhythms. Following
this is a faster movement, usually imitative in texture. Often,
the opening slow section returns briefly to close out the entire
a polyphonic piece in which a single theme is presented in different
parts, often in different keys and ranges. A fugue begins with an
exposition, in which the theme (called the "subject" in a fugue)
is played or sung by each part once. Following this, the subject
appears in some sections of music, and does not appear at all in
others. Bach was considered a master of the fugue.
a style of music immediately following the Baroque period; found
mostly in works from 1740-1770; the style is marked by an overall
light, elegant character; short, miniature pieces; clear phrasing;
simple harmonies; and an overall homophonic style. The galant style
was intended to be simpler, less complex, less emotional than the
Baroque which preceded it.
[ZHAWN-rah]: a type of piece
bass: a work based on a repeating bass line, usually 8 measures
in length. The bass line repeats without change. The ground bass
also refers to the bass line itself. Synonyms: chaconne, passacaglia.
cadence: a cadence which concludes on the dominant (V) chord
of a key. Occasionally, vii chord substitutes for the V chord at
the cadence, as happens near the end of the "Est ist der alte Bund"
section of Cantata BWV 106. Although the cadence indicates a stopping
point, the ending on the dominant (or vii) leaves the phrase or
section feeling unresolved.
rhythm: the speed at which the chords change. In the
Baroque era, the harmonic rhythm was generally slow, with one or
two chords per measure.
adding chords to a melody. The chords could be played by single
instrument (such as the harpsichord or organ), by a group of instruments
(as in an orchestra), or sung by a choir (where the melody would
normally be in the soprano).
harpsichord: the predecessor
of the piano. A keyboard instrument whose strings are plucked, rather
than struck, in order to produce the sound. Capable of very limited
changes in dynamics, and possessing very little sustaining power.
a texture best described as melody with accompaniment, as in a hymn.
The accompaniment might be instrumental or vocal, but there is one
clear melody, usually in the soprano.
well suited for a particular voice or instrument. Much music written
in the early Baroque period or earlier than that was written for
any treble instrument, or any bass instrument. Beginning in the
Baroque, composers wrote for a specifically-named instrument. Violin
parts, therefore, are written differently than flute parts, even
though both are treble instruments.
when parts echo each other, usually with overlapping statements.
The echoes could be exactly the same, or just similar.
the distance between two pitches
the person who writes the libretto (the text) for an opera, oratorio,
literally, it means "little book." The entire text for an opera,
oratorio, or cantata.
uses pitches from a scale in which the third note is higher than
minor, producing a brighter sound. The interval between pitches,
from bottom to top, in a major scale is as follows: whole step,
whole step, half step, whole step, whole step, whole step, half
the most important liturgy in the Roman Catholic church; celebrated
every day, and sometimes more than once a day, it commemorates the
Last Supper (Jesus Christ's last meal with his disciples before
his crucifixion). The Mass is composed of numerous prayers, musical
items, responses, Biblical readings, and other texts. See also Ordinary
more than one note on a syllable. A good example of this occurs
in the "pleni sunt coeli" section of the Sanctus
in Bach's B Minor Mass.
the main theme in a piece of music
a pattern of fixed beats (subdivisions of musical time) for an entire
piece of music or section of music. Meter is indicated by a time
signature, which resembles a fraction. Meter usually groups beats
in twos, threes, or fours. Individual beats can be subdivided in
twos (called "simple meter") or threes ("called compound meter).
uses pitches from a scale in which the third note is lowered, compared
to major. Sometimes the sixth and seventh notes are lowered as well,
though they often are not. Pieces written in minor are often more
somber or sad in mood
mixture: a combination of major and minor in a passage
which is otherwise clearly in a major key or clearly in a minor
key; the effect is to obscure the key or mode temporarily.
a texture in which all parts and/or instruments do exactly the same
thing simultaneously; that is, there is only one melody without
any kind of accompaniment.
an ornament common in the Baroque era, especially in keyboard music.
It appears in written form like so:
perform this, insert descending neighboring tones where the squiggles
appear. Mordents without the vertical line should be performed with
an ascending neighboring tone.
a polyphonic vocal composition, usually written in Latin, unaccompanied,
and using a sacred text. A popular genre of
the Renaissance. Bach wrote 6 motets, some of which have optional
instrumental accompaniment. Bach's motets are written in German,
Passion: a particular genre of musical Passions, in
which the entire text is sung by an a cappella
chorus. Essentially, a series of motets. Because
there are no soloists, the individual characters of the story cannot
be developed or distinguished through the music.
The smallest recognizable element of a melody. Motives can be melodic
-- where we recognize the direction of the pitches -- or rhythmic.
The most famous example of a rhythmic motive is eighth-eighth-eighth-quarter
(the opening of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony).
any complete and independent division of a larger work. Individual
movements are separated by a brief pause before and after. Usually,
the audience should not applaud during these breaks between movements.
A succession of movements comprises a larger work, such as a concerto,
a symphony, a cantata, or an oratorio.
tone: a type of non-chord tone, placed between two
identical chord tones, moving in both directions by step as follows:
in a D major chord, the C-sharp is a non-chord tone. It is placed
between two Ds, which do fit the chord; the C-sharp is approached
and left by step. Neighboring tones may be ascending or descending
(as in the example above).
obligatory; that is, you must play this part. Often misunderstood
by students to mean "optional."
oboe: the highest-sounding member
of the double reed family of woodwinds. It usually plays in the
soprano register. An oboe is generally made out of wood, or sometimes
plastic. The performer blows into a double reed, which is two very
thin, slightly-curved pieces of wood. If you stare straight down
the top of the double reed, the shape will resemble a very thin
football. The sound of an oboe is a bit thin, and reedy.
d'amore: this is an older version of the modern oboe.
It has a slightly lower range than the modern oboe, and also a slightly
da caccia: this is also a type of oboe. It was curved
in the shape of a hunting horn, which it why it is called "da caccia."
It had a lower range than the modern oboe.
a long, dramatic, sacred work which tells a story using soloists,
a chorus, and orchestra. Unlike an opera, an oratorio is rarely
those parts of the Catholic Mass whose texts remain the same every
day. There are five Ordinaries which are normally set to music by
composers: Kyrie (Lord have mercy), Gloria (Glory to God in the
highest), Credo (We believe in one God), Sanctus (Holy, holy, holy
Lord), and Agnus Dei (Lamb of God).
a keyboard instrument using pipes to produce the sound. Although
the manuals (keyboards) are played like the modern piano, an additional
keyboard of pedals is played by the feet, and a stream of wind blows
through the pipes as the instrument is played, producing the sound.
The organ was used most often in church (sacred) music.
one who plays the organ
a repeating pattern. May be melodic (pitches repeated), rhythmic
(rhythms repeated) or a combination. A ground bass is an example
of an ostinato, where both pitch and rhythm are repeated.
signature: a key signature in which at least one accidental
is omitted. This was common in the Renaissance when the "missing''
accidental would not be in use in all of the vocal parts. In Bach's
day, partial signatures still occurred, though almost always in
minor-key flat key signatures, such as in his early motet, "Ich
lasse dich nicht'' (BWV 159a).
a music composition which retells the story of Christ's passion,
leading from the Last Supper through his crucifixion and death on
tone: Sometimes called "pedal point.'' A long,
held note, usually in the bass (where the pedals in the organ sound),
which continues to hold even as the chords above it change. As a
result, the pedal tone sometimes fits the chord, sometimes not,
creating tension and dissonance. Sometimes, even with the dissonance,
the pedal tone can be used to "anchor'' a given passage in
a key, thus providing stability despite the alternating consonance
phrasing: organization of phrases of a musical work into pairs
of an equal number of measures (usually 4 + 4, sometimes 8 + 8),
in an antecedent-consequent arrangement. In such an arrangement,
the first phrase is open-ended and requires the second phrase (often
based on a similar theme or idea) to achieve closure.
fugue: a fugue in which material after the original subject
also becomes the object of imitation.
a complete musical thought. Like a phrase in grammar, a musical
phrase can be dependent, requiring additional phrases to create
a more complete sound, or independent and sound sufficient on its
third: the major third above the tonic pitch on the final chord
Ana piece otherwise written in the minor mode; that is, a minor
key piece ends with the major version of the tonic (a C minor piece
ends with a C minor chord). The term from a French word meaning
sharp or pointed.
the perceived highness or lowness of sound. Pitch can be very specific
(A or middle C, for example), or relative (high, low, lower, for
a stately Polish dance; sometimes used as a synonym for polonaise.
Set in moderate triple meter.
a texture in which all parts are equal and independent
a short work which comes before a larger work. Used to establish
the key of the work and sometimes the mood.
those parts of the Catholic Mass whose texts change daily.
Reformation: a movement in which a large number of
Christians broke from the Catholic church and founded their own
denominations. While they remained Christians, they tried to right
what they saw as wrong with the Catholic Church. In the case of
Martin Luther, he found 95 elements which needed fixing or correcting
in the Roman Catholic Church and posted those on a cathedral door.
The Lutheran movement was the most famous and probably the largest
of the Reformation Churches to form, although it was not the first.
(Jan Hus, founder of the Unitas Fratrum, or Moravian Church, actually
broke from the Roman Catholic Church almost 100 years before Luther,
but he was killed and his followers persecuted, so they remained
a secret sect until the larger Reformation came to pass.)
answer: in a fugue, a subsequent statement of the subject (that
is, any statement but the first) in which all intervals remain exactly
the same as in the original statement, although the starting pitch
may differ. For example, a fugue subject might begin on C, then
leap up a perfect fifth, then down a major third. In a real answer,
the statement of the subject might begin on G, then leap up a perfect
fifth, then down a major third.
[reh-sih-tah-TEEV]: speech-like singing. The term can be
used to describe a movement, a texture, or a section within a piece.
minor key: In the major-minor tonal system, the minor key which
has the same key signature (same number of sharps or flats) as the
major tonic. For example, C major has no sharps or flats; its relative
minor key is a minor, which has no sharps or flats. The relative
minor key is located a minor third below (or a major sixth above)
the tonic key.
equivalent to "tutti," or everyone. Used primarily in
the concerto gross form to indicate the full ensemble, as opposed
to the solo group (concertino).
a recurring orchestral melody. Common especially in the concertos
The term "rondeau'' goes back to the Middle Ages, where it
was an important poetic and musical form in France. More relevant
to Bach and later composers, the rondeau was an instrumental form
from the 17th century, which alternated a refrain (usually 8 or
16 measures in length, and sometimes repeated itself), with "couplets,''
as they were called(basically, different "verses''. Each couplet
was usually in a different, though closely-related, key to the refrain.
The form was common in 17th-century French harpsichord music.
a popular form of the Classical era (c.1780-1815). Although it is
primarily an instrumental form, rondos were adapted at time to vocal
music (a good example is Cherubini's aria "Non so piß cosa
son, cosa faccio'' from Le nozze di Figaro). Like its predecessor,
the rondeau, the rondo was based on the principals of repetition
and contrast: an initial theme begins a work, returns periodically,
and usually closes the movement; interspersed are new, contrasting
themes (usually 2). The form is usually diagrammed with letters
representing each theme as such: ABACA (with A representing the
original, rondo theme; B, C, and all other letters represent differing
A dance of Spanish origin, used by Bach in many of his French, English,
and orchestral suites. The sarabande is a slow dance in triple meter,
with accents on the second and/or third beat. It was quite dignified
in character, and usually lacked upbeats.
a pre-determined arrangement of a succession of pitches, usually
eight, where the first and last have the same pitch name. Most commonly
used are major and minor scales, especially in Bach's day.
recitative: a recitative accompanied
by continuo alone, in which the continuo merely provides harmonic
support; there are no melodic elements or ornamental elements to
the continuo accompaniment
music not written for religious purposes
a melodic pattern, which appears, usually in a single voice, beginning
on different pitches. Sequences are common in "filler"
passages between important melodic statements. An example of a sequence
is shown at right.
binary form: a binary form in which there is no actual
return of the theme which opened the movement, though the melody
may be similar. In contrast, a "rounded binary" form brings
back the original them, albeit shortened, with the return of the
tonic in the second section.
recitative (recitativo semplice): similar to
secco recitative in that
the accompaniment is generally provided by continuo (although, other
instruments of the orchestra may be included). The primary purpose
of the accompaniment in a simple recitative is to provide harmonic
support, though the parts may have some minor melodic interest,
written out ornaments, or more active transitional passage
the highest-sounding female voice; or, the highest register in an
instrumental work. Flutes, violins, and oboes are instruments which
typical play in the soprano range.
antico: the term used during the Baroque for the old style of
writing; that is, a cappella church music of the Renaissance, such
as by Palestrina and his generation.
In poetry or hymns, any text which is organized in stanzas of equal
length. Strophic musical settings refer to a composition which employs
the same music for different text (usually, strophic poetry).
the theme in a fugue.
a non-chord tone in which a tone which had been a member of
a chord is sustained (suspended) as the harmony changes, at which
point it creates a dissonance. A suspension must resolve downward
to a member of the chord. An example of a suspension is shown in
the score at left.
a rhythmic device whereby an accent occurs in some place other than
the strong beat (or strong portion of the beat), or where the strong
beat (or strong portion of the beat) is de-emphasized through the
use of suspension across the strong beat (or strong portion of the
beat). An example of a suspension is shown in the score at right.
an older term for middle voice, usually performed by the viola.
Bach may have intended this part to be performed by a tenor oboe,
tuned like the oboe DA caccia or English horn.
the speed of a piece of music.
the character of a composition or passage, in view of the combination
of all parts; the musical fabric. Textures may be thick or thin,
busy or simple, homophonic, polyphonic,
used primarily in reference to vocal music. Describes music which
is composed without internal repeats or recurring refrains.
the home chord of a key. For example, in C major, the tonic chord
is C major (C-E-G). Tonic can also refer to the root of the chord.
In the same example, the tonic pitch would be C.
a chord built of three pitches which can fit on consecutive lines
or consecutive spaces on a staff.
sonata: though the term implies three (trio), a trio sonata
normally employs 4 performers--two melodic parts, and two instruments
(a melodic one and a chordal one) on the continuo part. There are,
however, three separate parts in the score.
a division of the beat into 3 equal parts, rather than 2.
the interval of an augmented fourth or diminished fifth. The most
dissonant of all interval. Referred to by Medieval and Renaissance
musicians as the "devil in music"
everyone or all. Synonymous with ripieno in a concerto or concerto
simultaneous performance of the same pitch; also, the interval containing
no semitones or whole tones. Sometimes the term "rhythmic unison"
is employed to distinguish music in which all parts are rhythmically
the same, despite any pitch differences which may exist.
the language of the people, rather than Latin, the official language
of the Catholic Church. For example, the vernacular in France is
French; the vernacular in Wales is Welsh.
the largest of the viol family. By the end of the Baroque era, the
viol family almost entirely disappears from orchestras, being replaced
by the preferred violin family. The exception is what we today know
as the string bass or double bass, which is in fact derived from
the viol family. In the Renaissance, viols were the preferred string
instruments. The strings were tuned in fourths, rather than fifths
as the modern violin. Viols were basically categorized by range:
treble, tenor, and bass. Bach is one of the last composers to employ
the viol in his ensembles, though even in his works the appearances
of the viols are limited. Generally speaking, the viol continues
in France as part of court chamber music longer than elsewhere in
piccolo: a string instrument similar to the violin, though tuned
differently, and normally sounding a minor third higher than written.
Since the range is not dramatically different from the "normal"
violin, scholars assume that the violino piccolo must have had a
distinctive timbre, and thus Bachs use of this instrument
is related to color, not range. Bach uses the violino piccolo in
Brandenburg Concerto No. 1, among a few other works.
someone who displays a high level of proficiency in playing or singing.
bass line: sometimes called running bass line. A common characteristic
of high Baroque music, a walking bass line is an active, moving
bassline with frequently changing pitches. See section "What
is Baroque?" for an example.
Well-Tempered Clavier: written in two volumes, each
contains a prelude and a fugue in every major and minor key. Used
as a teaching tool.
painting: when the music reflects or imitates the words. For
example, on "heaven" the music rises.
2004 Carol Traupman-Carr